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Table 3 A summary of putative biomarkers and their biological function that have been identified in nipple aspirate fluid

From: Evaluation of nipple aspirate fluid as a diagnostic tool for early detection of breast cancer

Biomarker (s) Characteristics References
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) Inversely proportional to disease stage, size of tumour, node status and distant metastases [102,103,104]
Thomsen–Friedenreich (TFr) and Tn antigens Predictive for the presence of breast cancer or atypia [99, 100]
Testosterone Predictive in postmenopausal women only [97, 98]
Superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) Involved in cancer initiation and progression by ROS related damages [105]
Protein DJ-1 mRNA level increased but protein level decreased in tissue [106]
Cytokines/chemokines High level of pro-inflammatory C–C and CXC chemokines. [107]
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) Promotes breast cancer invasion and metastasis [110, 111]
Serotransferrin protein (TF) and ferritin (FTN) Proliferation of cancer cells [109]
C-reactive protein (CRP) Serum biomarker for metastasis of different type of cancers [112, 113]