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Table 1 The characteristics of the study samples and excluded individuals

From: Biomarkers of blood cadmium and incidence of cardiovascular events in non-smokers: results from a population-based proteomics study

  Never smokers (n = 1725) Long-term former smokers (n = 782) Excluded current smokers (n = 1088)
B-Cd (µg/L) mean (SD)/median 0.23 (0.16)/0.20 0.23 (0.16)/0.20 1.04 (0.71)/0.90
Age (years) 58.0 (5.8) 58.1 (5.9) 56.2 (5.8)
Sex (male, n, %) 497 (28.8) 399 (51.1) 440 (40.4)
Diabetes mellitus [n (%)] 113 (6.6) 67 (8.6) 74 (6.8)
BMI (kg/m2) 25.7 (3.9) 26.0 (3.8) 24.8 (3.9)
LDL (mmol/L) 4.21 (0.98) 4.12 (0.95) 4.18 (0.99)
HDL (mmol/L) 1.43 (0.37) 1.39 (0.37) 1.36 (0.37)
hsCRP (mg/L)a 1.20 (0.6–2.4) 1.20 (0.6–2.3) 1.60 (0.8–3.4)
Anemic status (n, %) 45 (2.6) 20 (2.6) 20 (1.8)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 141 (18.5) 141 (17.7) 138 (19.1)
Low education [n (%)] 765 (44.3) 374 (42.9) 517 (47.6)
Dietary intake of fiber (g/day)a 20.4 (16.6–25.0) 21.4 (17.0–26.3) 18.6 (14.7–23.6)
  1. Values expressed are means (±SD) or percentages unless specified elsewise
  2. B-Cd blood cadmium, BMI body mass index, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high density lipoprotein, hsCRP high-sensitive C-reactive protein
  3. aMedian (25–75%)