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Table 1 Participants’ characteristics according to their self-rated health (n = 4521)

From: The associations of self-rated health with cardiovascular risk proteins: a proteomics approach

 Self-rated healthpa
Lower than or equal to 5 (n = 2356)Higher than 5 (n = 2165)
Age (years)57.3 (± 5.86)57.7 (± 6.08)0.04
Sex (male, %)875 (37.1%)888 (41.0%)< 0.01
Body mass index (kg/m2)25.9 (± 4.17)25.2 (± 3.57)< 0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)141.7 (± 19.8)139.7 (± 17.7)< 0.001
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L)4.17 (± 0.99)4.16 (± 0.96)0.78
Smoker (%)670 (28.4%)498 (23.0%)< 0.0001
Anti-hypertensive medication (%)439 (18.6%)235 (10.9%)< 0.0001
High alcohol consumption (%)94 (3.99%)64 (2.96%)0.06
High education (%)646 (27.4%)615 (28.4%)0.46
Living alone (%)579 (24.6%)462 (21.3%)< 0.01
Low physical activity (%)603 (25.6%)466 (21.5%)< 0.01
Diabetes (%)212 (9.00%)130 (6.00%)< 0.001
Comorbidity (%)b841 (35.7%)517 (23.9%)< 0.0001
Sleep duration per day (%)
 ≤ 6 h332 (14.1%)181 (8.36%)< 0.0001
 6–8 h1250 (53.1%)1233 (57.0%)< 0.01
 ≥ 8 h774 (32.9%)751 (34.7%)0.19
Unemployment (%)111 (4.71%)86 (3.97%)0.22
Psychiatric medication (%)163 (6.92%)42 (1.94%)< 0.0001
  1. Values expressed are means (± standard deviation) or percentages
  2. aAnalysis of variance or logistic regression analysis
  3. bComorbidity included ventricular ulcer, cancer, asthma/chronic bronchitis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and kidney stone