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Fig. 5 | Clinical Proteomics

Fig. 5

From: Clinical proteomics for prostate cancer: understanding prostate cancer pathology and protein biomarkers for improved disease management

Fig. 5

(Figure adapted from Watson et al. [155])

Androgen Signalling in Prostate Cancer. Androgen receptor (AR) signalling is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary–testicular axis. Androgen production is predominantly regulated by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and lutenizing hormones (LH), which promote testosterone secretion from the Leydig cells of the testes. GnRH and LH are primary targets for androgen deprivation therapy (a). Weak androgens such as androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are also produced by the adrenal glands, which promote de novo steroidogenesis in the presence of elevated levels of cholesterol (b). In the prostate androgens are converted to testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which bind to and activate AR. Bound AR is translocated to the nucleus where it initiates transcription of AR target genes (c) [155, 162]

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