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Table 3 Sample selection for biomarker discovery

From: Clinical proteomics for prostate cancer: understanding prostate cancer pathology and protein biomarkers for improved disease management

  Tissue Body fluids
Biopsy Needle biopsy Serum and plasma Urine Prostatic fluid and seminal plasma
Advantages Direct analysis of tumor protein expression/activation Non-invasive collection Non-invasive collection Minimally invasive collection
Diagnostic markers Fast and low-cost sample preparation High volume Rich in prostate-derived proteins
Prognostic markers Diagnostic markers Rich in prostate-derived proteins Fast and low-cost sample preparation
Most useful for patient stratification in terms of response to therapy Prognostic markers Fast and low-cost sample preparation Diagnostic markers
Diagnostic markers Prognostic markers
Prognostic markers  
Limitations Invasive collection Low abundance of potential biomarkers Low abundance of potential biomarkers Low abundance of potential biomarkers
Limited quantity Dynamic concentration range Dynamic concentration range Dynamic concentration range
Must be snap-frozen within 30 min from collection Intra and inter-patient variability in composition Intra and inter-patient variability in composition Intra and inter-patient variability in composition
Complicated sample preparation
Tissue Sampling Errors
  Variability in sample collection  
  1. Table adapted from Pin et al. [209]