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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants compared with the original development cohort

From: Validation and update of a multivariable prediction model for the identification and management of patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma

Parameters Development cohort1 Validation cohort
Hepatitis Cirrhosis Benign SOL HC HCC Hepatitis Cirrhosis Benign SOL HCC
(n = 289) (n = 314) (n = 179) (n = 508) (n = 908) (n = 451) (n = 308) (n = 96) (n = 157)
Age, mean (SD), years 50.2 (13.3) 45.1 (13.6) 52.2 (13.1) 41.2 (11.9) 53.5 (10.1) 50.7 (9.4) 58.1 (10.7) 58.5 (12.4) 59.6 (120)
Sex, n (%)
 Male 195 (67.5%) 213 (67.8%) 101 (56.4%) 252 (49.6%) 752 (82.8%) 345 (76.5%) 206 (66.9%) 58 (60.4%) 133 (84.7%)
 Female 94 (32.5%) 101 (32.2%) 78 (43.6%) 256 (50.4%) 156 (17.2%) 106 (23.5%) 102 (33.1%) 38 (39.6%) 24 (15.3%)
Etiology, n (%)
 HBV 289 (100%) 289 (100%) / 0 (0%) 289 (100%) 430 (95.3) 194 (63.0) 36 (37.5) 122 (77.7)
 HCV 0 (0%) 0 (0%) / 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 4 (0.9) 27 (8.8) 6 (6.3) 10 (6.4)
 Alcoholic 0 (0%) 0 (0%) / 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 3 (0.7) 33 (10.7) 5 (5.2) 7 (4.4)
 Others (Schistosomiasis, HBV & HCV overlapping infection, HEV) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) / 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 14 (3.1) 54 (17.5) 49 (51.0) 18 (11.5)
 BCLC stage, 0+A/B+C/D, n (%)      318 (35.0)/590 (65.0)/0 (0)     32 (20.4)/99 (63.0)/26 (16.6)
Child-Pugh class, n (%)
 A 289 (100) 312 (99.4) 175 (97.8%) 508 (100%) 903 (99.4) 414 (91.8) 192 (62.3) 71 (74) 68 (43.3)
 B 0 2 (0.6) 4 (2.2%) 0 4 (0.4) 29 (6.4) 95 (30.9) 23 (24) 53 (33.8)
 C 0 0 0 0 1 (0.2) 8 (1.8) 21 (6.8) 2 (2.0) 36 (22.9)
 Total bilirubin, mean (SD), μmol/L 15.1 (12.2) 56.6 (88.4) 18.0 (21.3) 16.2 (9.2) 16.9 (36.1) 27.6 (75.6) 47.7 (43.2) 32.3 (59.7) 79.9 (133.6)
 Platelet, mean (SD), 109/L 193.7 (69.8) 117.4 (71.4) 226.6 (104.3) 189.2 (46.5) 169.8 (77.7) 168.1 (59.8) 105.6 (70.0) 150.5 (72.3) 147.6 (85.4)
 Alanine aminotransferase, mean (SD), U/L 35.8 (45.7) 122.9 (268.1) 42.2 (64.5) 34.7 (34.6) 43.4 (56.4) 80.1 (359.9) 47.4 (126.7) 73.0 (177.8) 89.8 (273.6)
 Aspartate aminotransferase, mean (SD), U/L / / / / / 60.3 (197.5) 53.6 (88.3) 64.9 (145.2) 134.3 (178.0)
 Gamma-glutamyltransferase, mean (SD), U/L / / / / / 48.6 (90.0) 77.9 (122.5) 78.1 (110.9) 211.2 (217.7)
 Gamma-glutamyltransferase/aspartate aminotransferase ratio, mean (SD) / / / / / 1.31 (1.91) 1.70 (2.05) 1.64 (1.52) 2.35 (2.49)
 Prothrombin time, mean (SD), s 11.5 (0.9) 14.5 (3.5) 11.4 (1.4) 11.5 (0.7) 11.9 (1.1) 13.7 (7.7) 14.6 (4.8) 12.8 (3.0) 14.5 (5.5)
 International normalized ratio, mean (SD) 0.96 (0.07) 1.24 (0.31) 0.95 (0.09) 0.97 (0.04) 1.03 (0.45) 1.26 (0.68) 1.34 (0.44) 1.19 (0.28) 1.34 (0.49)
 Albumin, mean (SD), g/L 42.0 (3.7) 38.5 (5.7) 42.6 (4.1) 42.8 (4.7) 42.2 (4.7) 43.0 (5.4) 35.5 (7.2) 38.2 (6.1) 32.6 (6.4)
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 4 (1.4) 8 (2.5) 8 (4.5) 0 (0) 71 (7.8) 1 (0.2) 21 (6.8) 2 (2.1) 17 (10.8)
 AFP, mean (SD), log ng/mL / / / / / 1.46 (1.09) 1.70 (1.32) 1.87 (1.55) 5.94 (3.85)
 PIVKA-II, mean (SD), log mAU/mL / / / / / 3.14 (0.58) 3.33 (1.00) 3.54 (1.08) 8.47 (2.56)
 HBeAg-negative, (%, n) / / / / / (74.6, 406) (86.6, 186) (82.9, 35) (84.2, 114)
 HBV DNA, < 50 IU/ml, (%, n) / / / / / (56.8, 382) (74.5, 188) (56.3, 32) (20.2, 119)
  1. AFP alpha-fetoprotein, BCLC Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer, SOL space-occupying lesion, HBeAg hepatitis B virus e antigen, HBV hepatitis B virus, HC healthy control, HCC hepatocellular cancer, HCV hepatitis C virus, HEV hepatitis E virus, PIVKA-II protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II, SD standard deviation
  2. 1The data were summarized from the original report of the derivation of the ASAP model reported by Yang et al [8]; "/" indicates not applicable or no data available