Morphological changes in diabetic kidney are associated with increased O-GlcNAcylation of cytoskeletal proteins including α-actinin 4
© Akimoto et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 2 September 2011
Accepted: 21 September 2011
Published: 21 September 2011
The objective of the present study is to identify proteins that change in the extent of the modification with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) in the kidney from diabetic model Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, and to discuss the relation between O-GlcNAcylation and the pathological condition in diabetes.
O-GlcNAcylated proteins were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and peptide mass fingerprinting. The level of O-GlcNAcylation of these proteins was examined by immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting and in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA).
O-GlcNAcylated proteins that changed significantly in the degree of O-GlcNAcylation were identified as cytoskeletal proteins (α-actin, α-tubulin, α-actinin 4, myosin) and mitochondrial proteins (ATP synthase β, pyruvate carboxylase). The extent of O-GlcNAcylation of the above proteins increased in the diabetic kidney. Immunofluorescence and in situ PLA studies revealed that the levels of O-GlcNAcylation of actin, α-actinin 4 and myosin were significantly increased in the glomerulus and the proximal tubule of the diabetic kidney. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that immunolabeling of α-actinin 4 is disturbed and increased in the foot process of podocytes of glomerulus and in the microvilli of proximal tubules.
These results suggest that changes in the O-GlcNAcylation of cytoskeletal proteins are closely associated with the morphological changes in the podocyte foot processes in the glomerulus and in microvilli of proximal tubules in the diabetic kidney. This is the first report to show that α-actinin 4 is O-GlcNAcylated. α-Actinin 4 will be a good marker protein to examine the relation between O-GlcNAcylation and diabetic nephropathy.
KeywordsO-GlcNAc modification Hexosamine biosynthetic pathway Kidney Glomerulus Cytoskeleton α?α?-actinin GK Rat Mass spectrometry Proximity Ligation Assay
O-linked N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine, termed O-GlcNAc, is a post-translational modification involved in modulation of signaling and transcription in response to cellular nutrients or stress by interplay with O-phosphorylation [1–3]. O-GlcNAc serves as a glucose sensor via the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. Elevated O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) of proteins by increased flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and diabetic complications and in the up-regulated gene expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and upstream stimulatory factor proteins in mesangial cells, leading to mesangial matrix expansion and diabetic glomerulosclerosis [2, 4–9]. We previously demonstrated increased O-GlcNAcylation in the kidney and pancreas of the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, which is an animal model of type 2 diabetes [10, 11]. Also, altered O-GlcNAcylation and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) expression were recently reported in the kidney from diabetic patients .
In this study we carried out proteomic analysis, especially focused on the proteins with remarkable change of the O-GlcNAc level in the kidney from GK rats, and suggested the potential of O-GlcNAcylation as a biomarker of diabetic nephropathy. Total kidney proteins from Wistar and GK rats were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. O-GlcNAcylated proteins were detected by immunoblotting using anti-O-GlcNAc antibody. Selected proteins that changed markedly in their extent of O-GlcNAcylation were identified by Mass Spectrometry (MS) analysis. MS sequencing of tryptic peptides identified some cytoskeletal proteins, including α-tubulin and α-actinin 4. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblot findings demonstrated that O-GlcNAcylation of these identified proteins was increased in the diabetic rats. To examine the localization of the identified cytoskeletal proteins, we conducted an immunohistochemical study using confocal scanning microscopy and immuno-electron microscopy. The localization and quantity of these O-GlcNAcylated proteins were further examined by performing the in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA), which was developed to examine protein-to-protein interaction and post-translational modification of proteins [13, 14].
Animals and tissues
Kidney tissues were obtained by dissecting 15-week-old male (n = 3) Wistar rats (as controls) and GK rats, which are a nonobese model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and had been developed by the selective breading of glucose-intolerant Wistar rats. Both rats were obtained from CLEA (Tokyo, Japan). All experimental procedures using laboratory animals were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Kyorin University School of Medicine.
Rabbit polyclonal anti-α-actinin 4 antibody was obtained from LifeSpan BioSciences (Seattle, WA). Rabbit polyclonal anti-myosin antibody was obtained from Biomedical Technologies (Stoughton, MA). Rabbit monoclonal anti-actin antibody (clone EP184E) and rabbit monoclonal anti-α-tubulin antibody (clone EP1332Y) were obtained from Epitomics (Burlingame, CA). Mouse monoclonal anti-O-GlcNAc antibodies (CTD110.6, 18B10.C7 ) were used. The generation of CTD110.6, 18B10.C7(3) was previously described [15, 16].
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and immunoblotting
Protein extraction and 2D-PAGE were performed as previously reported [17–19]. Three nondiabetic and 3 diabetic rat kidneys were used simultaneously from protein extraction to gel matching. Five-hundred micrograms of total protein prepared from normal and diabetic kidneys was loaded onto the gel for isoelectric focusing, which was performed by using pre-cast immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips (18 cm long, pH4-7, GE Healthcare Science). After equilibration in reducing solution and then in alkylating solution, second-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed by 10% SDS-PAGE. Separated protein spots on polyacrylamide gels were electroblotted onto PVDF membranes. Then total protein spots were stained with BODIPY FL-X (Invitrogen). The membranes were first blocked for 1 h at room temperature with 0.3% BSA in TBS-T and then incubated with mouse monoclonal anti-O-GlcNAc antibody (CTD 110.6, Covance) at a dilution of 1:5,000 for 1 hr at room temperature, followed by incubation with biotin-goat anti mouse IgM (Vector) at a dilution of 1:2,000 and then Qdot 625-conjugated streptavidin (Invitrogen) at a dilution of 1:2,000, each for 1 hr at room temperature. The total spots and immunoreactive spots were scanned by using a Molecular Imager FX laser scanning fluorometer (BioRad Laboratories, Hercules, CA). The intensities of spots were analyzed by using PDQuest software ver.8.0 (BioRad Lab). The search for protein spots whose O-GlcNAcylation had changed in the GK sample was performed as described previously . The abundance of spots was presented as parts per million of the total spots integrated by using the 'total quantity in analysis set' feature of the PDQuest software. When the abundance of spots on 2D gels of diabetic kidneys was > 2-fold or less than 0.5-fold compared with that for the control nondiabetic kidneys, we regarded the spots as proteins with a changed O-GlcNAcylation level.
In-gel protein digestion and peptide mass fingerprinting
The selected spots were cut from the second dimensional gel stained with SYPRO-Ruby. In-gel protein digestion of selected gel spots was performed according to the protocol described http://www.proteome.jp/2D/2DE_method.html. Peptide-mass fingerprinting data were acquired by using a MALDI-TOF-MS spectrometer (AXIMA-CFR, Shimazu Biotech). Proteins were identified with the Mascot search engine (Matrix Science, London, UK) search algorithms by using the Swiss-Prot protein databases (Version 57.6).
Immunoprecipitation, immuno-blotting and immunohistochemical study of actin, α-actinin 4, α-tubulin, and myosin
Immunoprecipitation, immuno-blot analysis and immunohistochemical study were carried out as described previously .
In situ PLA analysis
In situ PLA analysis was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions with an HRP/NovaRed detection kit from Olink Bioscience (Uppsala, Sweden) . Cryostat sections of kidney were cut and placed onto MAS-coated slides (Matsunami Glass, Tokyo, Japan). The slides were then incubated at 60°C in LAB solution for 5 min. These antigen-retrieved tissues were next washed with PBS, incubated for 15 min in 15 ml/L hydrogen peroxide in PBS, washed, and blocked with 1% BSA-PBS. For the in situ ligation assay, we used mouse monoclonal anti-O-GlcNAc antibodies (clone: 18B10.C7 ). The sections were incubated with this mouse anti-O-GlcNAc antibody in combination with rabbit anti-actin, anti-α-actinin 4, anti-α-tubulin or anti-myosin antibody overnight at 4°C. After having been washed with TBS-0.1% Tween20 (TBS-T), the sections were incubated with a mixture of MINUS secondary PLA probe against mouse immunoglobulins and PLUS secondary PLA probe against rabbit immunoglobulins for 1 h at 37°C. Then they were washed with TBS-T, and subsequently incubated in hybridization solution for 15 min at 37°C and washed with TBS-T once for 1 min. The slides were next incubated with the ligation mix for 30 min at 37°C and washed with TBS-T twice for 1 min each time. Then the sections were incubated with the amplification mix for 90 min at 37°C and washed 3 times for 5 min each time with TBS-T. The slides were thereafter incubated with the HRP-labeled hybridization probe for 30 min at room temperature. After 2 washes with TBS for 2 min each time, the slides were incubated with DAB staining mix for 5 min and then washed with water. Nuclei were stained with hematoxyline. The slides were examined with a bright-field microscope equipped with a CCD camera Pro600ES (Pixera, San Jose, CA). In the negative controls in which the primary antibodies had been replaced with normal rabbit IgG and normal mouse IgG or omitted, signals were scarcely observed (data not shown). Signals were quantified with BlobFinderBright software, which is available on BlobFinder Website http://www.cb.uu.se/~amin/BlobFinder/.
Data were compiled from 3 independent experiments. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis, and for all cases P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.
Identification of O-GlcNAcylated proteins in normal and diabetic kidneys
Proteins showing an increase in the O-GlcNAcylation level in the diabetic kidney
Theoretical mass (kDa)/pI
myosin heavy chain
Immunohistochemical study on cytoskeletal proteins
The intensity of immunoreactivity for actin in the glomerulus from the diabetic kidney was increased, especially in its mesangial cells and podocytes (Figure 3B). This result is consistent with an earlier study on the GK rat . The immunoreactivity against actin was also detected in the brush border in the proximal tubules. However, its intensity did not change in the diabetic kidney (Figure 3B)
The immunofluorescence indicating α-actinin 4 was observed as a linear pattern around the lumen of the glomerular capillary, and its intensity in the glomerulus was increased in the diabetic kidney (Figure 3D). α-Actinin 4 was also localized in the brush border area at the luminal side of tubules, and the immunoreactivity was greater in the sections from the diabetic kidney (Figure 3D).
In the glomerulus the immunoreactivity of α-tubulin was weak and did not change in the section from the diabetic kidney (Figure 3F). In the sections showing the proximal tubules of the nondiabetic kidney, a striated immunoreactivity pattern was observed; whereas a diffuse one was noted in the case of the diabetic kidney (Figure 3F).
Whereas weak immunofluorescence was observed in the glomerulus from the normal kidney (Figure 3-1G), intense immunoreactivity was observed in that from the diabetic kidney (Figure 1C-P). Myosin immunoreactivity was also observed in the brush border area of the proximal tubules in sections from both normal and diabetic kidneys, but no difference in intensity was observed between normal and diabetic proximal tubules (Figure 3H).
Immuno-electron microscopy of α-actinin 4
Because α-actinin 4 has been identified as the causal gene for familial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and is considered to play an important role in the maintenance of podocyte morphology [22, 23], we further examined the precise localization of α-actinin 4 in the glomerulus and tubules by performing immuno-electron microscopy.
In situ proximity ligation assay of O-GlcNAcylated cytoskeletal proteins
O-GlcNAcylation of proteins is a common type of posttranslational modification. The in situ PLA was developed to image protein-to-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications in cells and tissues [13, 14]. Using this in assay, we examined the localization of O-GlcNAcylated cytoskeletal proteins (actin, α-actinin4, α-tubulin, and myosin) and quantified their signals.
In this study using proteomic analysis, we identified several O-GlcNAcylated proteins including cytoskeletal proteins, actin, α-actinin 4, α-tubulin, and myosin and we demonstrated that their extent of O-GlcNAcylation was elevated in the diabetic kidney. For the first time, in situ PLA studies demonstrated the localization of O-GlcNAcylated cytoskeletal proteins and confirmed their increase in O-GlcNAcylation.
Comparison between phosphorylation sites and O-GlcNAcylation sites
S54, S157, S201, S234, S37026
Y265, S423, S621, K625, T66727, 30
S262, S269, T612, S613, S656*
Y103, Y224, S232, Y272, T33435, 36
S6, S158, S178, T271, S419**
myosin heavy chain
Y389, Y410, S949, S1038, Y1375 Y1415, Y1852, S1956, T196039, 40
S172, S179, S196, S392, S622, S626, S643, S644, S749, S880, S1038, S1102, S1148, S1159, S1189, S1200, S1299, S1308, S1336, S1470, S1471, S1596, S1597, S1600, S1606, S1710, S1711, S1777, S191626
The second O-GlcNAcylated protein that we identified was α-actinin 4. This is the first report to show that α-actinin 4 is O-GlcNAcylated. α-actinin 4 is thought to play an important role in the maintenance of morphology of podocytes by cross-linking with the cortical actin network, which serves as an anchor for a variety of intracellular structures [28, 29]. α-actinin 4 is also involved in the bundling of F-actin and vesicular trafficking and has also been identified as the causal gene for familial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis . The present results suggest that abnormal O-GlcNAcylation of α-actinin 4 and actin may affect the crosslinking to actin and cause the morphological changes seen in the podocyte foot processes in the glomeruli and in the microvilli of tubules. α-Actinin 4 is reported to be phosphorylated at its Tyr/Ser/Thr residues [27, 30], but the O-GlcNAcylation sites have not been reported yet. The predicted O-GlcNAcylation sites Ser262 and Ser269 are located near the phosphorylation site Tyr265, where the phosphorylation at this site regulates the interaction of α-actinin 4 with actin and alters its intracellular location and conformation (Table 2) . Further study remains to be done to clarify the precise O-GlcNAcylation sites of α-actinin 4 and their role in the normal and diabetic kidneys.
α-Tubulin is a component of microtubules, which are involved in reabsorption of substances in kidney tubules via the transport of vesicles from the luminal surface to the basal surface of the tubules. It was reported that O-GlcNAcylation of miro and milton (OIP106 and GRIF-1) plays a crucial role in the transportation of vesicles and mitochondria via microtubules . The present in situ PLA study showed that the O-GlcNAcylation of α-tubulin was increased in both the glomerulus and tubule. It has been reported that α-tubulin is O-GlcNAcylated  and phosphorylated [34–36], but the O-GlcNAcylation sites in it have not been determined yet. Thr271 residue, one of the predicted O-GlcNAcylation sites, is located next to the phosphorylation sites Tyr272 (Table 2). By inhibiting the phosphorylation of Tyr272, O-GlcNAcylation of Thr271 may regulate microtubule formation and/or interaction with ligands, such as tau, microtubule-associated proteins 1, 2 (MAPs-1, 2), which are also O-GlcNAcylated. Recently it was demonstrated that O-GlcNAcylation of tubulin inhibits its polymerization and negatively regulates microtubule formation . The present results suggest that the reabsorption of certain substances in the proximal tubules by transportation via microtubules may be hampered as polymerization of tubulin is inhibited by its abnormal O-GlcNAcylation.
Myosin is another important cytoskeletal protein, and it is also O-GlcNAcylated [24, 38]. In situ PLA revealed that the O-GlcNAcylation of myosin was increased in both glomeruli and tubules, where myosin plays an important role in the maintenance of the morphology of glomerular cells and microvilli of tubules. Mapping of O-GlcNAcylation sites revealed that Ser1038 residue is O-GlcNAcylated (Table 2)  and this same residue has also been shown to be phosphorylated (Table 2) [39, 40]. The role of O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of Ser1038 residue remains to be clarified.
In conclusion these results suggest that in the diabetic kidney the morphological changes in the glomerulus and tubules may be ascribed to the abnormal O-GlcNAcylation of cytoskeletal proteins including α-actinin 4, which O-GlcNAcylation is induced by hyperglycemia-enhanced flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. α-Actinin 4 will be a good maker to examine the relation between O-GlcNAcylation and diabetic nephropathy. In situ PLA method could be used for the clinical diagnosis to localize the O-GlcNAcylated proteins and quantify them when the antibody against O-GlcNAcylated protein is not available. Further studies need to be carried out to clarify the roles of O-GlcNAcylation of cytoskeletal proteins in the maintenance of cell morphology and the relationships between O-GlcNAcylation of proteins and the etiology of diabetes complications by the glycomic approaches .
Conflicts of interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
List of Abbreviations
- O-GlcNAc O:
- O-GlcNAcylation modification of proteins by O:
in situ proximity ligation assay
- GK rat:
- LAB solution:
liberate antibody binding solution
Tris-buffered saline-0.1% Tween 20
2: microtubule-associated proteins 1, 2.
The authors thank Ms. Sachie Matubara, Ms. Miki Kanai, Ms. Tomoko Miura and Ms. Sayuri Koroishi (Laboratory for Electron Microscopy and Department of Anatomy, Kyorin University School of Medicine) for technical assistance.
This study was supported in part by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (C-20590198 to YA), from Japan Diabetes Foundation (to YA), from the Kazato Research Foundation (to YA), from Kyorin University School of Medicine, Kyorin Medical Research Award 2010 (to YA) and by NIH R01 DK61671 (to GWH).
- Wells L, Vosseller K, Hart GW: Glycosylation of nucleocytoplasmic proteins: signal transduction and O-GlcNAc. Science. 2001, 291: 2376-2378. 10.1126/science.1058714View ArticlePubMed
- Hart GW, Housley MP, Slawson C: Cycling of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine on nucleocytoplasmic proteins. Nature. 2007, 446: 1017-1022. 10.1038/nature05815View ArticlePubMed
- Butkinaree C, Park K, Hart GW: O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc): Extensive crosstalk with phosphorylation to regulate signaling and transcription in response to nutrients and stress. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010, 1800: 96-106.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Yang X, Ongusaha PP, Miles PD: Phosphoinositide signaling links O-GlcNAc transferase to insulin resistance. Nature. 2008, 451: 964-969. 10.1038/nature06668View ArticlePubMed
- Teo CF, Wollaston-Hayden EE, Wells L: Hexosamine flux, the O-GlcNAc modification, and the development of insulin resistance in adipocytes. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010, 318: 44-53. 10.1016/j.mce.2009.09.022PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Daniels MC, Kansal P, Smith TM, Paterson AJ, Kudlow JE, McClain DA: Glucose regulation of transforming growth factor-alpha expression is mediated by products of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway. Mol Endocrinol. 1993, 7: 1041-1048. 10.1210/me.7.8.1041PubMed
- Kolm-Litty V, Sauer U, Nerlich A, Lehmann R, Schleicher ED: High glucose-induced transforming growth factor β1 production is mediated by the hexosamine pathway in porcine glomerular mesangial cells. J Clin Invest. 1998, 101: 160-169. 10.1172/JCI119875PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Goldberg HJ, Scholey J, Fantus IG: Glucosamine activates the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene promoter through Sp1 DNA binding sites in glomerular mesangial cells. Diabetes. 2000, 49: 863-871. 10.2337/diabetes.49.5.863View ArticlePubMed
- Weigert C, Brodbeck K, Sawadogo M, Häring HU, Schleicher ED: Upstream stimulatory factor (USF) proteins induce human TGF-β1 gene activation via the glucose-response element-1013/-1002 in mesangial cells: up-regulation of USF activity by the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. J Biol Chem. 2004, 279: 15908-15915. 10.1074/jbc.M313524200View ArticlePubMed
- Akimoto Y, Yamamoto K, Munetomo E: Elevated post-translational modification of proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine in various tissues of diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats accompanied by diabetic complications. Acta Histochem Cytochem. 2005, 38: 131-142. 10.1267/ahc.38.131. 10.1267/ahc.38.131View Article
- Akimoto Y, Hart GW, Wells L: Elevation of the post-translational modification of proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine leads to deterioration of the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreas of diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Glycobiology. 2007, 17: 127-140.View ArticlePubMed
- Degrell P, Cseh J, Mohás M: Evidence of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine in diabetic nephropathy. Life Sci. 2009, 84: 389-393. 10.1016/j.lfs.2009.01.007View ArticlePubMed
- Fredriksson S, Gullberg M, Jarvius J: Protein detection using proximity-dependent DNA ligation assays. Nat Biotechnol. 2002, 20: 473-477. 10.1038/nbt0502-473View ArticlePubMed
- Söderberg O, Gullberg M, Jarvius M: Direct observation of individual endogenous protein complexes in situ by proximity ligation. Nat Methods. 2006, 3: 995-1000. 10.1038/nmeth947View ArticlePubMed
- Comer FI, Vosseller K, Wells L, Accavitti MA, Hart GW: Characterization of a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for O-linked N-acetylglucosamine. Anal Biochem. 2001, 293: 169-177. 10.1006/abio.2001.5132View ArticlePubMed
- Teo CF, Ingale S, Wolfert MA: Glycopeptide-specific monoclonal antibodies suggest new roles for O-GlcNAc. Nat Chem Biol. 2010, 6: 338-343. 10.1038/nchembio.338PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Miura Y, Kano M, Yamada M: Proteomic study on X-irradiation-responsive proteins and ageing: search for responsible proteins for radiation adaptive response. J Biochem. 2007, 142: 145-155. 10.1093/jb/mvm118View ArticlePubMed
- Toda T, Kimura N: Standardization of protocol for immobiline 2-D PAGE and construction of 2-D PAGE protein database on world wide web home page. Jpn J Electroph. 1997, 41: 13-19.
- Toda T, Kaji K, Kimura N: TMIG-2DPAGE: a new concept of two-dimensional gel protein database for research on aging. Electrophoresis. 1998, 19: 344-348. 10.1002/elps.1150190232View ArticlePubMed
- Zieba A, Wählby C, Hjelm F: Bright-field microscopy visualization of proteins and protein complexes by in situ proximity ligation with peroxidase detection. Clin Chem. 2010, 56: 99-110. 10.1373/clinchem.2009.134452View ArticlePubMed
- Janssen U, Riley SG, Vassiliadou A, Floege J: Hypertension superimposed on type II diabetes in Goto Kakizaki rats induces progressive nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2003, 63: 2162-2170. 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00007.xView ArticlePubMed
- Kaplan JM, Kim SH, North KN: Mutations in ACTN4, encoding α-actinin-4, cause familial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Nat Genet. 2000, 24: 251-256. 10.1038/73456View ArticlePubMed
- Kos CH, Le TC, Sinha S: Mice deficient in α-actinin-4 have severe glomerular disease. J Clin Invest. 2003, 111: 1683-1690.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Hédou J, Bastide B, Page A, Michalski J-C, Morelle W: Mapping of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine modification sites in key contractile proteins of rat skeletal muscle. Proteomics. 2009, 9: 2139-2148. 10.1002/pmic.200800617View ArticlePubMed
- Zhou X, Hurst RD, Templeton D, Whiteside CI: High glucose alters actin assembly in glomerular mesangial and epithelial cells. Lab Invest. 1995, 73: 372-383.PubMed
- Ramirez-Correa GA, Jin W, Wang Z: O-linked GlcNAc modification of cardiac myofilament proteins: a novel regulator of myocardial contraction function. Circ Res. 2008, 103: 1354-1358. 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.108.184978PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Huang S-Y, Tsai M-L, Chen G-Y, Wu C-J, Chen SH: A systematic MS-based approach for identifying in vitro substrates of PKA and PKG in rat uteri. J Proteome Res. 2007, 6: 2674-2684. 10.1021/pr070134cView ArticlePubMed
- Nabet B, Tsai A, Tobias JW, Carstens RP: Identification of a putative network of actin-associated cytoskeletal proteins in glomerular podocytes defined by co-purified mRNAs. PLOS ONE. 2009, 4: e6491- 10.1371/journal.pone.0006491PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Ichimura K, Kurihara H, Sakai T: Actin filament organization of foot processes in rat podocytes. J Histochem Cytochem. 2003, 51: 1589-1600. 10.1177/002215540305101203View ArticlePubMed
- Chen Y, Choong L-Y, Lin Q: Differential expression of novel tyrosine kinase substrates during breast cancer development. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007, 6: 2072-2087. 10.1074/mcp.M700395-MCP200View ArticlePubMed
- Shao H, Wu C, Wells A: Phosphorylation of α-actinin 4 upon epidermal growth factor exposure regulates its interaction with actin. J Biol Chem. 2010, 285: 2591-2600. 10.1074/jbc.M109.035790PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Glater EE, Megeath LJ, Stowers RS, Schwarz TL: Axonal transport of mitochondria requires milton to recruit kinesin heavy chain and is light chain independent. J Cell Biol. 2006, 173: 545-557. 10.1083/jcb.200601067PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Walgren JLE, Vincent TS, Schey KL, Buse MG: High glucose and insulin promote O-GlcNAc modification of proteins, including α-tubulin. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003, 284: E424-E434.View ArticlePubMed
- Nogales E: Structural insights into microtubule function. Annu Rev Biochem. 2000, 69: 277-302. 10.1146/annurev.biochem.69.1.277View ArticlePubMed
- Jørgensen C, Sherman A, Chen GI: Cell-specific information processing in segregating populations of Eph receptor ephrin-expressing cells. Science. 2009, 326: 1502-1509. 10.1126/science.1176615View ArticlePubMed
- Ballif BA, Carey GR, Sunyaev SR, Gygi SP: Large-scale identification and evolution indexing of tyrosine phosphorylation sites from murine brain. J Proteome Res. 2008, 7: 311-318. 10.1021/pr0701254View ArticlePubMed
- Ji S, Kang JG, Park SY, Lee J, Oh YJ, Cho JW: O-GlcNAcylation of tubulin inhibits its polymerization. Amino Acids. 2011, 40: 809-818. 10.1007/s00726-010-0698-9View ArticlePubMed
- Cieniewski-Bernard C, Bastide B, Lefebvre T, Lemoine J, Mounier Y, Michalski JC: Identification of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine proteins in rat skeletal muscle using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2004, 3: 577-585. 10.1074/mcp.M400024-MCP200View ArticlePubMed
- Molina H, Horn DM, Tang N, Mathivanan S, Pandey A: Global proteomic profiling of phosphopeptides using electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007, 104: 2199-2204. 10.1073/pnas.0611217104PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Zanivan S, Gnad F, Wickström SA: Solid tumor proteome and phosphoproteome analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2008, 7: 5314-5326. 10.1021/pr800599nView ArticlePubMed
- Wang Z, Hart GW: Glycomic approaches to study GlcNAcylation: Protein identification, site-mapping, and site-specific O-GlcNAc quantitation. Clin Proteom. 2008, 4: 5-13. 10.1007/s12014-008-9008-x. 10.1007/s12014-008-9008-xView Article
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.