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Table 4 (A) Median concentrations and ranges of individual biomarker candidates in serum and P values for comparison of clinical groups in all stages of the menstrual cycle. (B) Analysis by menstrual cycle phase showing significant differences in candidate biomarker levels. P values < 0.05 are considered significant

From: Discovery of non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of endometriosis

Candidate biomarker Units Control (C) Pain (P) Endometriosis (E) E versus C P value E versus P P value C versus P P value
(A)        
CA125 U/mL 7.7 (1.3–28.0) 7.7 (0.6–273.0) 22.5 (0.70–386.6) 0.0007 0.0058 ns
oestradiol pmol/L 245 (18–2512) 419 (79–1616) 345 (18–2110) ns ns ns
progesterone nmol/L 1.9 (0.6–43.7) 6.1 (0.9–53.4) 2.3 (0.2–61.7) ns ns ns
sICAM1 ng/mL 301.4 (81.9–502.3) 265.7 (85.83–624.7) 342.1 (92.3–730.8) 0.04 0.004 ns
IL1R2 ng/mL 12.72 (7.65–19.23) 11.33 (6.41–23.29) 12.35 (0.57–23.2) ns ns ns
MCP1 ng/mL 0.32 (0.10–1.55) 0.26 (0.07–1.39) 0.27 (0.03–2.25) ns ns ns
MIF ng/mL 24.81 (2.20–106.3) 30.87 (2.22–282.8) 24.11 (2.25–314.6) ns ns ns
VEGF ng/mL 0.33 (0.07–1.00) 0.32(0.09–0.95) 0.41 (0.15–1.41) ns ns ns
FST ng/mL 0.82 (0.27–3.79) 0.73 (0.28–2.41) 0.67 (0.23–4.33) ns ns ns
PAEP ng/mL 7.22 (1.03–51.82) 11.35 (4.92–38.84) 13.52 (0.70–79.68) ns ns ns
LUM ng/mL 47.05 (0.60–101.1) 41.7 (0.18–111,3) 45.0 (6.39–133.0) ns ns ns
TNC ng/mL 40.31 (11.27–152.2) 73.24 (13.47–154.7) 46.27 (7.09–182.4) ns 0.039 0.044
CPM ng/mL 3.83 (0.4–70.75) 4.32(0.02–38.03) 6.13 (0.4–94.62) ns ns ns
CRP mg/L 0.7 (0.6–9.2) 0.6 (0.6–10.0) 0.75 (0.6–20.0) ns ns ns
Candidate biomarker Secretory phase Proliferative phase
E (n = 26) versus C (n = 9) E (n = 26) versus P (n = 12) E (n = 13) versus C (n = 10) E (n = 13) versus P (n = 9)
(B)     
CA125 0.006 0.003 ns ns
oestrogen ns ns ns ns
progesterone ns ns ns ns
sICAM1 ns 0.026 ns ns
IL1R2 ns ns ns ns
MCP1 ns ns ns ns
MIF ns ns ns ns
VEGF 0.033 ns ns ns
FST ns ns 0.011 ns
PAEP ns ns ns ns
LUM ns ns ns ns
TNC ns 0.037 ns ns
CPM ns ns ns ns
CRP ns ns ns ns
  1. C = no pain control; P = pain control; E = endometriosis; ns = not significant