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Table 4 Examples of potential PCa biomarkers discovered in clinical samples by mass spectrometry

From: Clinical proteomics for prostate cancer: understanding prostate cancer pathology and protein biomarkers for improved disease management

Biomarker Sample type Clinical application MS technique Publication year Refs
16 Protein panel Serum Prediction of PCa recurrence Discovery by label-free LC–MS/MS; Validation by MRM-MS 2013 Morrissey et al. [278]
Cholesterol, dihydrosphingomyelin, phophatidylcholine, egg phosphatidylcholine and egg phosphatidylethanolamine Serum Detection of PCa ESI–MS/MS 2014 Patel et al. [279]
Ureidoisobutyric acid, Indoylacroylglycine, N-acetylvanilalinine Urine Detection of PCa LC-HRMS 2014 Goto et al. [280]
41 Protein panel Serum Prediction of PCa recurrence Discovery by label-free LC–MS/MS; Validation by MRM-MS 2015 Tonry et al. [281]
3 Protein panel Urine Detection of PCa LC–MS/MS 2015 Overbye et al. [282]
Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H2, CD44 antigen, Immunoglobulin gamma 2 heavy chain, Cadherin-13 Serum Aggressive v non aggressive PCa PRM-MS 2015 Thomas et al. [283]
PAP and Galectin-3 Urine Detection of PCa Discovery by label-free LC–MS/MS; Validation by MRM-MS 2015 Geisler et al. [284]
136 Protein panel Urine Early diagnosis of PCa MRM-MS 2015 Percy et al. [285]
Sphingosine Tissue Differentiation of PCa from BPH LC–MS (metabolomics) 2016 Ren et al. [286]
3 Protein panel Serum Detection of PCa Discovery by iTRAQ 3D LC–MS; Validation by ELISA 2016 Larkin et al. [287]
Lactoferrin Tear Differentiation of PCa from BPH MRM-MS 2016 You et al. [288]
Claudin 3 Plasma (exosomes) Differentiation of PCa from BPH LC–MS discovery, ELISA validation 2017 Worst et al. [289]
Free amino acids: methionine, 3-methylhistidine, serine, sarcosine and proline Serum + urine Detection of PCa LC–ESI–MS/MS 2017 Derezinski et al. [290]
12 protein panel Urine Early diagnosis of PCa MRM-MS 2017 Shi et al. [230]
Furan, p-xylene Urine Detection of PCa GC–MS 2018 Jiminez-Pacheco et al. [291]
56 N-glycopeptide panel Urine Differentiation of PCa from BPH Discovery by label-free LC–MS/MS; Validation by PRM-MS 2018 Kawahara et al. [292]
3 Protein panel Serum Prediction of survival in metastatic PCa 2DE-MS 2018 Cho et al. [293]
Sarcosine and related metabolites Urine Early diagnosis of PCa MRM-MS 2018 Yamkamon et al. [294]
Ferritin (heavy and light chain) Urine PCa Diagnosis 2DE-MS 2019 Zhao et al. [295]
Morse et al. multivariate Metabolomic classifier Tissue   DESI-MSI 2019 Morse et al. [296]
Panel of 4 heavy metals Serum Prediction of PCa risk Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) 2019 Lim et al. [297]
4 protein panel Tissue Distinguish between low and high grade PCa Discovery by label-free LC–MS/MS; Validation by PRM-MS 2019 Kawahara et al. [298]
20-Metabolite panel Serum Prediction of PCa recurrence NMR + LC–MS 2019 Clendinen et al. [299]
Phospho-lipid panel Tissue Prediction of PCa aggression MALDI-MSI 2019 Randall et al. [300]
75 Protein panel FFPE Detection of PCa and differentiation of PCa from BPH DIA-MS + verification by MRM-MS 2020 Sun et al. [245]
  1. PCa: prostate cancer; LC–MS/MS: liquid chromatography mass spectrometry; ESI–MS: electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry; LC-HRMS: liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry; MRM-MS: multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry; PRM-MS: parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry; GC–MS: gas chromatography mass spectrometry; 2DE-MS: 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis mass spectrometry; DESI-MSI: Desorption electrospray ionisation–mass spectrometry imaging; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; MALDI-MSI: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging; DIA-MS: data independent acquisition mass spectrometry